Three genres of traditional dance in Bali marks_1
  • Manage No, Sortation, Country, Writer ,Date, Copyright
    Manage No EE00000091
    Country Indonesia
    ICH Domain Oral traditions and representations Performing Arts Social practices, rituals, festive events Knowledge and practices about nature and the universe Traditional craft skills
    Traditional Balinese dances are found in the 8 districts (Karangasem, Klungkung, Bangli, Gianyar, Badung, Tabanan, Jembrana and Buleleng) and one municipality (Denpasar), Bali Province, Indonesia. Traditional Balinese dance is also found in other provinces in Indonesia, especially in areas that have communities of Bali, for example, on the island of Lombok in West Nusa Tenggara Province, and Lampung Province. Many Balinese have transmigrated into other areas, and thus traditional Balinese dance has become popular among many other ethnic communities in various regions in Indonesia and in many foreign countries, for example, Japan, the United States, Canada, and Australia.
Description Traditional Balinese dances are performed by male and female dancers dressed in exquisite traditional costumes consisting of brightly coloured cloths painted with gold motifs of flora and fauna, and gold leafed and jewelled accessories. The dances are inspired by nature and symbolize the traditions, customs and religious values, composed in four elements: agem, basic body posture with knees turned out and stocmach pushed in; tandang, locomotive movements in different tempo and directions; tangkis, transitional movements with dynamic changes; and tangkep, facial expression with eyes movements showing happiness, sadness, anger, love, fear, etc. They are accompanied by music of Balinese gamelan instruments with symphonic poems that contain moral messages taken from religious teachings. Dancers portray various characters as strong or refine male role, female role, and mixed role. For Balinese, dance is a part of religious ceremonies conducted periodically according to the Balinese calendar. A dancer should also have taksu, charisma, a special spiritual energy which makes the performance become alive (dynamic). Balinese dances can be categorized as Wali (sacred), Bebali (semi-sacred) or Balih-balihan (entertainment). The three categories is applied with respect all over Bali using different dance forms according to the principle of desa (place), kala (time), and patra (occasion). In Balinese communities, dances are mainly transmitted informally to children from early ages in traditional groups (sekaa) and at formal schools in various levels. Traditional Balinese dances are rich in noble values and are an important part of the Balinese cultural heritage and identity, now studied almost all over Indonesia.
Social and cultural significance Traditional Balinese Dances function as parts of or accompaniments to religious ceremonies, or as entertainment. There are three categories of dances: 1. Wali or sacred dances (origin 8th-14th Centuries), performed in the inner sanctum (mandala utama) of Balinese temples (pura) as a part of ceremonies, e.g. Rejang, Sanghyang, Pendet Upacara and Baris Upacara, Wayang Gedog. 2. Bebali or semi-sacred/ceremonial dances (origin 14th-19th Centuries), performed in the middle compound (madya mandala) of Balinese temples as accompaniment to ceremonies. Bebali dances have scenarios, e.g., Topeng Sidhakarya, Gambuh, Wayang Wong dance dramas. 3. Balih-balihan type dances (origin 19th Century-present) with social/ entertainment function, performed in the outer compound of temples, or elsewhere, e.g. Legong Kraton, Kakebyaran, Joged Bumbung, and Janger dances; Calonarang, Arja, Barong Ket “Kuntisraya” and Kecak dance dramas. Most respondents said that Traditional Balinese Dances were a part of their customs and cultural expressions, of their cultural heritage. Most respondents explained that the dance movements symbolized nature (fauna, flora, nature, day-to-day life, statues, reliefs, mudras/ hand gestures, movements related to costumes. The dances are related to the history of Bali, e.g. Gambuh dance drama comes from the Panji stories. Other sources include epics, fables, and romances. Most respondents said that Traditional Balinese Dances give them cultural identity and a feeling that they are continuing their ancestors’ cultural heritage.
Transmission method The method of transmission of skills in Traditional Dances of Bali is similar both in informal and formal settings. A teacher or teachers will dance in front of the class, and the students, who may be small children from the age of 4 or 5 years, school children up to youths, or even adults, will follow the movements of the teacher from behind the teacher, in time with the musical accompaniment, which may be live or recorded in the case of training, but which is almost always live (a gamelan orchestra) in the case of actual performances. The instruction begins with basic dance movements and positions, and basic dances, which would normally be Pendet for girls and Baris for boys. The teacher may from time to time correct the movements of the students if they are not correct. The instruction sessions will continue over and over until the students have memorized the sequence of movements of the dance. Progressively more intricate dances are then taught. The students will be tested by having to give an actual performance with live music. Dance dramas are choreographed. New dances are being created, following in the tradition.
Community Community of Traditional Dances of Bali consists of: Dancers, Trainers and Lovers of Balinese Traditional Dances, Accompanying Gamelan Musicians, Artists, Members of traditional groups (sekaa) and organizations (sanggar), school students, prominent religious and traditional figures, members of Banjar/Desa Pekraman (traditional community groups) and government officials related to Balinese Traditional Dance.
Type of UNESCO List Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
Incribed year in UNESCO List 2015

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