Gamelan marks_1
  • Manage No, Sortation, Country, Writer ,Date, Copyright
    Manage No EE00001979
    Country Indonesia
    ICH Domain Oral traditions and representations Performing Arts Social practices, rituals, festive events Knowledge and practices about nature and the universe Traditional craft skills
    The distribution of gamelan in Indonesia is centred in the following provinces of Central Java, Special Region of Yogyakarta, East Java and Bali. Today, almost all provinces in Indonesia have gamelan, i.e., West Java; West Nusa Tenggara: Mataram City, West Lombok, Central Lombok, North Lombok, East Lombok regencies; South Kalimantan: Banjarmasin City, Banjarbaru City, Tapin, Banjar, Hulu Sungai Tengah, Hulu Sungai Selatan, and Hulu Sungai Utara regencies; West Kalimantan: Pontianak City, Pontianak, Sambas, and Sekadau regencies; East Kalimantan: Kutai Kertanegara City, West Kutai and Mahakam Hulu regencies; West Sumatra: West Pasaman Regency, Dharmasraya Regency, Sawahlunto and Padang Panjang City; South Sumatra: Palembang City, Penukal Abab Lematang Ilir Regency, Lubuk Linggau Regency; Bangka Belitung: Pangkal Pinang City, and Lampung: Bandar Lampung City and West Lampung Regency.
Description Gamelan is the percussion orchestra of Indonesia. Gamelan is a set of traditional music instruments mostly made of hand-forged metal (bronze, brass, and iron). Gamelan consist of slab-type (wilahan) instruments: saron/sarun/pemade, demung/sarun ganal, gender/kiliningan, slenthem/selentem/jegogan, peking/sarun paking/kantilan, kecrek/keprak, and gong-type (pencon) instruments: gong, kempul, kenong, bonang, trompong, kethuk, and kempyang. Other instruments, e.g., zither and seruling (bamboo flute). Gamelan instruments are played by beating (gong, saron, demung, slenthem, kecer); plucking and strumming (siter, kecapi, rebab); tapping (kendang); and blowing (flute). The pitch and tuning of gamelan are slendro and/or pelog (pentatonic and/or heptatonic), each has its own frequency and interval pattern. Lower and higher pitched instrument pairs, together, they produce Indonesian Gamelan melodies, which resonate the sound of ombak (beats) or pelayangan (vibrato). Gamelan music has its own techniques and forms, i.e., one melody performed simultaneously by the different instruments (heterophony), the technique of interlocking multiple instruments to structure their rhythms (interlocking part), and the rhythmic and metric patterns of beat and punctuation (colotomic punctuation). Gamelan is used for human life-cycle rituals and ceremonies, mental-health therapy and other purposes, e.g., to refine character, develop life skills, increase study concentration, self-confidence and motivation. As entertainment, Gamelan is performed at music concerts, theatres, and other artistic expressions. Archaeological evidence of gamelan was found in the bas-reliefs of the 8th-century Borobudur temple. Gamelan is widely known in Indonesia and abroad.
Social and cultural significance Gamelan has social functions related to customary and religious ceremonies and rituals; a means to relief mental and health problems, i.e., autism and pain through psychotherapy; a means to reduce hard-headedness, aggressive behaviour, and generate peace of mind; strengthen spirit of togetherness, tolerance, independence, harmony of players; teaching gender equality since early childhood to adulthood; entertainment for the players and audience, and artistic collaboration that contributes to world peace.
Transmission method Transmission is carried out in both formal and non-formal education. Formal transmission is carried-out in primary to tertiary education, while the non-formal is carried-out within families and communities. The formal gamelan safeguarding is carried-out based on developed learning-materials for intra-curricular and extracurricular activities. Intra-curricular learning materials are teaching module, material and media, using multimedia technology for notation and recording in a controlled manner and adapted to the local conditions. To improve gamelan-playing skills, extracurricular learnings are conducted outside of school-hours. Tepung (to acquaint), srawung (to interact), dunung (to master and show) methods are used to transmit gamelan-playing skills within a community. The transmission within a family that owns gamelan musical instruments starts from prenatal, where unborn babies listen to parents playing gamelan. After birth, the mother brings the baby to see and hear the father playing and making gamelan. Training in sanggar/padepokan/sekaa (informal institutions) begins with the introduction of how to hold the tabuh (mallet) dan the ethics of bersila (sit cross-legged), followed by learning to play nada (pitch), laras (tone), and simple gending (song). Pengrawit candidates are seriously practicing the learning materials so that they can play well. Another transmission means is called Guru Panggung, a transmission through teachers’ gamelan performances with the students watching. Transmission of gamelan making, for youth and adult, is mostly through informal education. Lessons in the production process, from materials introduction, tools, temperatures, techniques of smelting, melting, forging, tuning, and assembly, to mastering the whole process, are taught in besalen (gamelan workshop).
Community Gamelan can equally be performed by both men and women, children and adults, is part of customary and religious ceremonies, and contemporary performing-arts. Gamelan tradition-bearers are: Mpu (master creator and performing-arts): a person with high-degree of dexterity, manner, and creativity in karawitan (classical gamelan); a master of gamelan performance, who emphasises the aspects of spiritual, technological, material, size, and voice-quality; a master of gamelan making process, who has cultural competence, sustainable artistic ethos, notable artworks as sources of creativity and technique for the community; Teacher/Trainer/Penguruk: those who teach students the manner, knowledge and skills of gamelan performance; Training Assistance: teaching assistant; Student/Cantrik: those who receive lessons on manner, knowledge, and skills of gamelan performance. Gamelan players/practitioners, called pengrawit/nayaga/niyaga/wiyaga/penabuh/juru-nabeuh/juru-tabuh/penggamel/panggamalan/panjak, consist of: Miji (Gẽnder and Gender Penerus (metallophones), Kendang (drums), Rebab and Siter (bowed and plucked strings), Gambang (xylophones), and flutes); Penabuh (Bonang, Demung, Saron, peking/penerus, slenthem, kethuk, kenong, kempul, gong); Panji, the master gong-smith in besalen (gamelan workshops), knowledgeable about tin and copper smelting, melting, and casting techniques; Pande, a gong-smith, gamelan instrument maker (forging/casting); Pelaras, a tuner to produce the exact tuning desired; Pengukir, a wood-carver whose artistic carvings adorn the rancakan (racks/resonating frames) of gamelan instruments; Penyungging, a person colouring the rancakan woodcarvings of gamelan instruments; and Perakit, a person who assemble rancakan of each gamelan instrument; Sinden/Juru Kawih (singer/song artisan), typically women; and additional male soloist/vocalists called Wira Swara/Juru Alok besides sinden. Lurah Sekar, Pengesuh/Tindhih/KelianGong, a group leader in gamelan performance, responsible for gamelan practice and transmission.
Type of UNESCO List Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
Incribed year in UNESCO List 2021

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